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Application of Aluminum Alloy in Lightweight of Front Anti-collision Beam of Automobile
Nov 05, 2018

The front bumper beam of the car is generally hidden inside the front bumper and inside the door. Under the action of large impact force, the elastic material can no longer buffer the energy, which really protects the occupants of the car. It is part of the passive safety system of the body. The anti-collision beam is actually not to let the car "anti-collision", its main role is to transmit power. Simply summarized, the role of the anti-collision beam is: low-speed collisions can reduce maintenance costs, and high-speed collisions can help improve protection, especially in complex and real-world environmental collisions.

1. Investigation on the application of the front anti-collision beam market

As the safety component of the car, the front bumper beam of the car is usually made of metal, such as high-strength steel and aluminum alloy. It generally consists of an anti-collision beam, an energy absorbing box, a absorbing box reinforcement and a connecting plate.

Through market research, a total of 65 models of front anti-collision beam materials were used. The survey results show that the application of aluminum alloy anti-collision beams in the industry is a development trend. The average mass of aluminum alloy anti-collision beam is 4.5 kg, the average mass of steel anti-collision beam is 6.6 kg, and the difference is about 32%. It can be seen that the aluminum alloy anti-collision beam has obvious advantages in light weight.

2. Comparative analysis of collision simulation of front bumper beam

The front impact beam collision model was established by HyperMesh software. After the model was built, the LS-DYNA software was introduced to simulate the performance of the anti-collision beam. The working condition selects the frontal collision of the anti-collision beam. The material of the anti-collision beam is 6061 aluminum alloy. The collision mass is set to 1 700 kg, the selection speed is 36 km/h, and the calculation time is set to 30 ms.

The energy absorption per unit mass of the energy absorption system is higher than the energy absorption capacity of different materials and structures. In the lightweight-based structural design, it is desirable that the structural member has a larger specific energy absorption value [1].

It shows that the aluminum alloy anti-collision beam has a specific energy absorption of 11.3 kJ/kg at 30 ms and the steel anti-collision beam has a specific energy absorption of 5.2 kJ/kg. The specific energy absorption of the aluminum alloy impact beam is more than twice that of the steel anti-collision beam.

3. Conclusion

In the manufacture of automobile products, gradually increasing the application ratio of aluminum alloy materials is an inevitable trend of lightweight vehicles. The development of aluminum alloy impact beams is one of the main ways to achieve lightweight vehicles. After the aluminum alloy impact beams have been verified by design, they will surely Replace the steel anti-collision beam.

1) According to the simulation analysis results, the front impact aluminum alloy impact beam absorbs energy better than the steel anti-collision beam, meeting the design requirements.

2) Aluminum alloy has the advantage of small density compared with steel material. The replacement of traditional steel structure with aluminum alloy structure can reduce the quality of front anti-collision beam by 30%-50%, and the lightweight effect is remarkable.

3) Compared with the energy absorption analysis of the anti-collision beam, the energy absorption capacity of the aluminum alloy anti-collision beam is obviously better than that of the steel anti-collision beam, which helps to improve the safety of the whole vehicle.